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Unit 12 句型解說

 

 

 

★再來我們研究neither A nor B 「既不是A也不是B」。AB的詞類或文法結構必須一致,如果我們把AB代入名詞,把這句型拿來當主詞,此時動詞的單複數要與B一致。來看看以下例句:
Neither you nor Sue is allowed to wear long hair. (動詞配合Sue,用is)
Neither you nor Tina has the ability to solve the problem. (動詞配合Tina,用has)
Ken was neither dead nor seriously injured. (deadseriously injured都是形容詞,雖然seriously是副詞,但它是用來修飾injured)
補充 I like neither math nor physics. = I don’t like either math or physics. (…neither…nor… = …not…either…or…)
補充 Mike is neither at home nor in the office. = Neither is Mike at home, nor is he in the office. (Neither…nor…放句首時,之後的子句要改成倒裝句,因為neithernor都是否定副詞)
補充both/either/neither的用法:
a. both「兩者都」,either「兩者之中的任一個」,neither「兩者都不」。
b. both搭配複數動詞,either/neither搭配單數動詞。
c. not both 「並非兩者都」,表部分否定。(參閱句型手冊p. 135)
看看以下例句,注意動詞的部分:
Both of the two brothers are lazy.
Either of the two brothers is diligent.
Not both of them are Chinese. = One of them is Chinese, but the other is not. (not both 為部分否定,表示「一個是一個不是)
 
 
2. N(P) + that-clause (Appositive 同位語)
句型手冊p.102-103以及p.141-142對此句型都有清楚的解說。有一些名詞,例如fact, idea, news, belief, doubt, feeling, suggestion, possibility這些字後面往往會跟一個that子句來當同位語,此時的that子句屬於名詞子句,不是形容詞子句。說到這裡,我想許多人可能還不太清楚名詞子句和形容詞子句的差別,所以我們先來溫習一下形容詞子句長什麼樣子,等等再回過頭來看這個名詞子句當同位語的用法。
 
形容詞子句 (from 句型手冊p.39)
形容詞子句功能是用來修飾先行詞(N.),形容詞子句的結構是不完整的,觀察以下各句,紅色字體表示關係代名詞,它後面的子句如果不是缺主詞,就可能缺受詞,再不然就是缺冠詞。假如子句缺主詞,我們就要給它一個主格的關係代名詞;假如缺受詞,就給它一個受格的關係代名詞;缺冠詞,要填上whose
a. The girl who sits next to me can play the piano. (who是形容詞子句的主詞)
b. I ran into a friend whose father is a teacher. (whose 是所有格的關係代名詞,表示「先行詞的」)
c. The man whom you met yesterday is my uncle. (whommet的受詞)
d. the man to whom you spoke yesterday is my uncle. (whomspoke to的受詞)
e. The book which I bought was very expensive. (whichbought的受詞)
f. I saw a boy and his dog that were walking in the park. (that是主格,當子句的主詞)
g. Kevin was the first person that found the treasure. (that是主格,當子句的主詞)
h. In my class, Bill is the only student that can play the violin. (that是主格,當子句的主詞)
i. Who is the girl that has long hair? (that是主格,當子句的主詞)
 
 
同位語
我們回來看名詞子句當同位語的用法,同位語的意思就「等於」,表示後面的that子句就是在詳細說明先行詞的概念。大家要知道,由that引導出的名詞子句,內部結構完整,既不缺主詞,也不缺受詞。看看下列各句和上面形容詞子句的差別吧。
Last night, I had a crazy dream that I was flying in the sky. (that子句裡面的主詞I,動詞was flying,整個子句說明a crazy dream的內容。)
I don’t agree with your idea that money is everything. (that子句中money is everything是完整的句子,整個子句說明you idea是什麼)
No one can deny the fact that the earth is round. (that子句中the earth is round是完整的句子,整個子句說明the fact的內容)
 
 
有不懂的地方,請留言發問,別客氣
 

 

 



 
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