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【重要文法】分詞的研究

分詞是由動詞變化而來,有兩種,分為現在分詞(V-ing)與過去分詞(V-en),現在我們以do字為例,看看它的各種面貌。
現在分詞:
       單純式:doing
       完成式:having done
       被動式:being done
       完成進行式:having been doing
       完成被動式:having been done
過去分詞:done

接著,我們來了解一下分詞有哪些功能,其實以下的分類不是絕對的,例如一個當形容詞的分詞可能會同時當補語。

分詞功能
1. 形成時態 2. 當形容詞用 3. 當補語用 4. 當名詞用 5. 當副詞用
6. 複合形容詞 7. 引導分詞構句 8.其他情形


 

   I.形成時態
He
is watching
TV. (現在進行式 be + V-ing)
The Great Wall
was constructed
two thousand years ago. (被動 be + V-en + by …)
I
have been
to Hong Kong twice. (現在完成式 have + V-en)
He
has been playing
computer games for 5 hours. (現在完成進行式 have been V-ing)
The letter
has been written by him. (完成式的被動語態 have been + V-en)



   
II.分詞當形容詞用
1. 現在分詞當形容詞時,表示「令人…的」,過去分詞則表示「人感到…的」
The student raised a confusing question. (confusing 修飾 question)
The teacher was confused. (confused : 感到困惑的,當主詞補語修飾the teacher)
The charming lady happens to be John’s sister. (charming 有魅力的,修飾lady)
The boy was charmed with the girl’s elegance. (charmed 表示「對…感到著迷」)
He is graduated = He has graduated. (注意graduated 的用法,這兩種寫法都可以)

 

2. 還有一種很常見的情況,就是由關係子句簡化為分詞片語,修飾先行詞。
The man writing a letter at the desk is my cousin.
(= The man who is writing a letter at the desk is my cousin.)
A man named Smith comes to my store quite often.
(= A man who is named Smith comes to my store quite often.)
That’s the problem having bothered me for a long time.
(That’s the problem which has bothered me for a long time.)
The boy reading a novel in his own room didn’t feel the earthquake.
(=The boy who was reading a novel in his own room didn’t feel the earthquake.)
Who is the boy (being) locked behind the door?
(=Who is the boy that is locked behind the door?)
There are three patients waiting for the doctor.
(=There are three patients who are waiting for the doctor.)
There were many people stuck in the man.
(There were many people who were stuck in the man.)

 




III.分詞當補語用:補語有兩種,修飾主詞的叫做「主詞補語」,會出現在這種句型中 S + V + S.C.。而修飾受詞的,是「受詞補語」,句型為S + V + O + O.C.,或者是with + O + O.C。
The experience is exciting. (exciting 當主詞補語)
He seems tired. (tired 當主詞補語)
He became more and more interested in learning English. (interested 當主詞補語)
I want it done right away. (done 是受詞補語,修飾it)
They found him tired. (tired 是受詞補語,修飾him)
As he talked to me, I found him trembling. (trembling 是受詞補語,修飾him)
I found him killing a dog. (killing 是表主動的受詞補語,修飾him)
I found the dog killed by him. (killed 是表被動的受詞補語,修飾the dog)
Please don’t leave the water running. (水的流動是主動的,running是water的受詞補語)
We felt the building shaking during the earthquake. (shaking為building的受詞補語)
I will have my bicycle repaired tomorrow. (repaired為my bicycle的受詞補語)
He talked to me with his legs shivering. (這是with + O + O.C的句型,shivering是受詞補語)
He stood with his arms folded before him. (這也是with + O + O.C的句型,folded是受詞補語)
He sat there with his eyes closed. (這還是with + O + O.C的句型,closed是受詞補語,修飾eyes)

 




IV.分詞當名詞用:這就是我們所知道的the + adj. = Ns,這裡的分詞其實也是形容詞。
The wounded were rushed to the hospital.
(=The wounded people were rushed to the hospital.)
The unexpected has happened.
(=Something we didn’t expect has happened.)
The living should learn to cherish life.
(=The living people should learn to cherish life.)

 




V. 分詞當副詞用:這比較少見,不過還是看一看。
It’s freezing cold today. (freezing 修飾cold)
It’s boiling/burning hot today. (boiling 修飾hot)
He was exceeding/exceedingly glad to hear it. (exceeding可修飾glad)
An estimated 54 people were killed in the air crash. (estimated 修飾54)

 




VI. 複合形容詞:分詞可以和名詞、副詞、形容詞結合,成為複合形容詞。
1. N.-V-ing
peace-loving people (=people who love peace)
a heart-breaking news (a news that breaks people’s heart)

 2. N.-V-en
a heart-broken woman (=a woman whose heart is broken)
a heart-shaped box (=a box which is shaped like heart)
a half-finished female monster (=a female monster which is half finished)

3. Adv.-V-ing
a hard-working student (= a student who works hard.)
a never-ending story (=a story which never ends.)

4. Adv.-V-en
a well-prepared speech (= a speech which is well prepared)
a less-traveled road (= a road which is less traveled)

5. Adj.-V-ing
a good-looking girl (=a girl who looks good)
a delicious-tasting pork chop (= a pork chop which tastes delicious)

6.Adj-V-en
an American-born Chinese (= a Chinese who was born in America)
a good-natured person (= a person with good nature)
a hot-tempered girl (a girl who has a hot temper)




VII.引導分詞句構:其實分詞構句在另一篇文章已經提到過了,這裡我寫出一些句子讓大家再複習一下。
He sat in the corner reading newspapers. (中間沒逗號,表示動作同時進行)
He sat in the corner listening to the radio. (中間沒逗號,表示動作同時進行)
He sat in the corner playing with his keys. (中間沒逗號,表示動作同時進行)
He stood there smoking. 他站在那裡抽煙。(比較He stood there to smoke. 他站在那裡是為了抽煙)
He left home at six in the morning, arriving there about four in the afternoon. (=He left home at six in the morning, and arrived there about four in the afternoon.) (注意順序問題)
He ran home quickly, looking as if something terrible had happened. (中間有逗號則不用考慮順序問題)
Having nothing to do, he feels bored. (=He has nothing to do, he feels bored.)
(Being) Sick of doing housework, he ran away from home.
Not (being) satisfied with the result, he decided to try again.
Not intending to see her, he left early. (He didn’t not intend to see her. He left early. 併句,刪掉助動詞)
Having done the work, he felt happy.
He seeing a pretty girl, his heart began to beat faster. (獨立分詞句構)
The plan having been carried out, we felt relieved. (獨立分詞句構)

 




VIII.其他情形
He will do it if properly encouraged. (=He will do it if he is properly encouraged.)
In those days, when not knowing how to proceed in an emergency, he would consult his father. (=In those days, when he did not know how to proceed in an emergency, he would consult his father.)
Everyone likes the movie, including (/excluding) John.
= Everyone likes the movie, John included (/excluded).
= Everyone likes the movie, inclusive (/exclusive) of John.
Considering his performance, he can make a good teacher.
= His performance considered, he can make a good teacher.
Generally speaking, man is stronger than woman.
Strictly speaking, he is not good enough.
Frankly speaking, he is not the man I want.
Judging from his appearance, he seems to be rich. (Judging不須和主詞一致)
Talking of novels, have you read his works?
According to John, the fire broke out at ten in the morning.
This is a book worthy of reading.

 


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