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Unit 9句型: 副詞子句與分詞構句

1. When my parents are out, we eat instant noodles. (表時間)

2. If you have time, we can have a cup of coffee together. (表條件)

3. We didn’t go out because the typhoon was coming. (表原因)

4. The baby is so cute that everyone wants to hold her. (表結果)

5. He studies day and night so that he can enter his ideal college. (表目的)

6. Although she is young, she is mentally mature. (表讓步)

7. Wherever you go, I will follow you. (表地方)

8. Some people like coffee, while some like tea. (表對比)

9. The boy talks as if he were an adult. (表情態)

10. As far as I know, you are not allowed to drive yet. (比例或程度)

 
以上例句我們可以觀察到兩個現象:

第一,副詞子句擺放的位置靈活,可以置於句子前半部或後半部(例外:第4句與第9句,只能放後半部)。

第二,副詞子句要由某些字來引導,例如when, if, because, so that, although 等等,我們稱這些字叫做「從屬連接詞」,如果給你兩個句子要你合併,你必須先了解那兩句的關係,再選擇適當的從屬連接詞,我們還要注意一點,你用附屬連接詞引導出來的部分,就會被「矮化」來作為補充說明用。

 


現在來練習一下,請合併以下每題中的兩個句子。

1. His girlfriend left in anger. Thomas had a chance to explain. (before)

2. The children were watching TV. Their mother was making dinner. (while)

3. We were tired out and couldn’t go any further. We walked for two hours. (after)

4. I was taking a shower. The hot water suddenly stopped running out. (while)

5. Lily washed her jeans twice. Her jeans were still dirty. (although)

6. Tammy didn’t lose a single pound. She had been on a diet for two months. (even though)

7. I can’t meet you tomorrow. I have another appointment already. (because)

8. Meg worried about the exam. She couldn’t sleep well. (as)

 

II. V1-en/V1-ing…, S + V2

這個句型叫做「分詞構句」,其實它就是把前一個句型談到的「副詞子句」精簡而來,我們來看看分詞構句的改法吧。

 
When Lisa entered the house, she heard strange noise from the kitchen.

 從這個句子我們觀察到兩件事,第一,它的副詞子句是由When引導的,表示主要子句發生的時間。第二,副詞子句裡的主詞(Lisa)和主要子句中的主詞(she),指的是同一個人。把這句精簡成分詞構句,要經過以下步驟:

1. 刪除從屬連接詞when

When Lisa entered the house, she heard strange noise from the kitchen.

2. 刪除副詞子句中的主詞Lisa

When Lisa entered the house, she heard strange noise from the kitchen.

3. 把副詞子句中的動詞entered改成分詞的形式,我們知道entered是個主動的動作,我們把它改成Entering(它現在位置在句首,所以要大寫)

Entering the house, she heard strange noise from the kitchen.

4. 我們發現主詞she不知所云,所以要還原成Lisa

Entering the house, Lisa heard strange noise from the kitchen. (完成)

   

 

以上的例子教你如何改成「現在分詞」引導的分詞構句,我們現在來看看「過去分詞」引導的分詞構句怎麼改。

  
Because Lisa was frightened by a rat, she screamed.

1. 刪除從屬連接詞because

Because Lisa was frightened by a rat, she screamed.

2. 刪除副詞子句中的主詞Lisa

Because Lisa was frightened by a rat, she screamed.

3. 刪除副詞子句中的be動詞 “was”

Because Lisa was frightened by a rat, she screamed.
4. 刪除了was之後,剩下frightened,它本身就是過去分詞,不用去改它,大寫就可以了。

Frightened by a rat, she screamed.

5. 最後我們要把主要子句的主詞she還原成Lisa

Frightened by a rat, Lisa screamed. (完成)

  
其實在第三個步驟,be動詞也可以不必刪除,我們把它改成Being,這麼一來最後就會變成

Being frightened by a rat, Lisa screamed.


有了以上的基本概念,來看看否定的分詞構句怎麼改。
Because Steve didn’t know which school to go to, he asked the teacher for help.
à Not knowing which school to go to, Steve asked the teacher for help.
助動詞在改分詞構句的過程中必須刪除,最後把Not放句首即可。
 

 

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